• Who am I?

    Who am I?

    I'm a philosopher.

    Why do I teach?

    I teach applied philosophy - actually, I have argued that all philosophy is really applied philosophy.  Why do I say that and why does it matter?

    Philosophy is an activity, an intellectual discipline. If you learn this discipline it will help you to think more clearly about any problem which confronts you and to understand the world around you. It will teach you to distinguish sense from nonsense, good arguments from bad. It will enable you to expose and question assumptions, even ones presented as too obvious or too widely shared to be worth questioning. In a world where we are increasingly bombarded with lies and fallacies, we need philosophy if we are to avoid being fooled again and again.

    Typically philosophers ask questions of a fundamental nature, about our most basic assumptions – concerning who we are, why we are here, what matters in life. To ask such questions is an important part of what it is to be human. The reason why so many debates (about, for instance, morality, religion or politics) seem intractable is because people bring with them underlying assumptions that they refuse to subject to critical attention. Philosophical analysis forces us to bring our own assumptions out into the open, not necessarily to reject them, but to see them for what they are.

    Who should do philosophy?
    If you think that a good book is one that tells you ‘all you need to know’ about a given subject, so that you can read it once, then never have to read or think again, then philosophy is not for you. Philosophy requires you to think. If you think a properly ‘practical’ course of study is one that gets all the problems it addresses ‘sorted out’, providing a checklist of do’s and don’ts to be followed mechanically for a quick fix, then philosophy is not for you. Real life obviously isn’t like that: it is never ‘sorted out’, and we do not even begin to live and practice well until we learn this. This subject is for you if you want to become a more thoughtful person, a more capable reasoner, a more perceptive analyst. It is for you if you are prepared to engage in rigorous and sometimes frustrating intellectual exercise in the pursuit of this goal. If you want to be told what to think, or told that whatever you think already is probably just fine, then there are plenty of other subjects you can do. But if you want to learn how to think clearly and for yourself, then you are the sort of person who can be a philosopher.

  • Academic Biography

    Academic and professional qualifications

    BA (Hons) Philosophy, University of Sheffield 1986

    PhD (Theory of Knowledge) 'Perception, Action and Knowledge', University of Liverpool 1992

    Previous Employment

    Research Associate in Philosophy
    Department of General Practice, University of Liverpool 1991-2

    Lecturer/ Senior Lecturer in Philosophy, Department of Humanities and Applied Social Studies, Alsager Campus, Manchester Metropolitan University 1992-2004

    Reader in Applied Philosophy, Department of Interdisciplinary Studies, MMU Cheshire 2004-2014

    Visiting Reader in Philosophy as applied to health care, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary College, University of London 2004-9

    Visiting Professor of Applied Philosophy, School of Medicine, University of Buckingham 2010-13

    Other academic service (administration and management)

    I have taken on numerous administrative roles over the years, including that of Subject Leader for Philosophy within the Combined Honours programme. I'm a member of Faculty Extended Executive Group and the RKE Faculty Operational Group. I was a Core Member of MMU Research Institute for Health & Social Change and I am now an invited member of the Professoriate Committee for the Faculty of Health, Psychology and Social Care in recognition of my long-standing links and collaborations with colleagues in that Faculty.

    I'm Group lead for the cross-faculty research group Social Value and Critical Practice and I lead the philosophy group within HSSR (Humanities & Social Science Research) Cheshire. When a member of the Manchester based Institute of Humanities and Social Science Research, I acted as mentor and reviewer for colleagues formulating their five year research plans.

    I was Chair of Departmental Ethics Committee for the Department of Interdisciplinary Studies between 2006 and 2012 and for the same period I was the department's representative on the Faculty Academic Ethics Committee.  I was the department's research degrees co-ordinator and course leader for the department's highly successful MA by Research into Professional Practice, and I have organised many CPD provisions for a range of organisations (see the sections of this page on research, engagement and knowledge exchange).

  • Teaching & Research Supervision

    Undergraduate courses

    I'm currently unit leader for the following units:

    Persons: final year philosophy unit, focussing on philosophy of mind, focussing on theories of the self, mind-brain identity theory and anti-reductionist accounts of the person

    Practical Ethics: final year philosophy - a research-based unit where applied debates are used to challenge traditional philosophical boundaries between – for example – ethics and epistemology

    Representation, Narrative & Perception: level 5 unit - the history of ideas, with a focus on 'modern' philosophy, applied to contemporary controversies and illustrated with the analysis of novels, films and popular media

    Applied Ethics: level 5 unit - major theoretical positions in moral philosophy and the problems in applying them to issues including warfare, animal ethics and terrorism

    Authority, Rights, Liberties and Crime: final year Crime Studies unit, covering foundational questions about the nature of Law and crime, their relationship with political and ethical concepts of legitimacy, obedience and the state; the limits of legitimate legislation and questions of individual rights and freedoms

    I have taught on many philosophical and interdisciplinary units at MMU, including Social Science and Abuse Studies units (Researching Vulnerable Groups, Human Rights) and recently the Evidence-Based Practice unit in the Department of Nursing.  I was involved in developing the Childhood & Youth Studies offering with colleagues in IDS and Education, and taught a final year core unit on Moral Education for several years.  I have supervised a range of final year undergraduate dissertations and developed a 'negotiated unit' for philosophy students.

    Postgraduate teaching

    I have designed and delivered post-graduate offerings for professionals (CPD) with colleagues in the social sciences at MMU, including the MA by Research into Professional Practice (which I led between 2000 & 2005) and the Advanced Practitioner Diploma. But I have also designed and delivered taught post-graduate offerings for several external institutions:

    In 2013 I designed the philosophical aspects (on evidence, medical epistemology, perception and judgement) of the Professional Doctorate Programme for the British School of Osteopathy. I have delivered sessions to several cohorts and my involvement is on-going.

    Similarly I designed and delivered the ethical and critical thinking components of the Postgraduate Certificate in Dental Health Services Leadership & Management, Faculty of General Dental Practice, Royal College of Surgeons of England (2005-present)

    I designed, delivered and examined the module: ‘Critical thinking in health care: a training course in intellectual and moral self-defence’ as part of the MSc in Primary Care, Queen Mary’s College, University of London (2004-5)

    Postgraduate supervision (completed/in progress)

    Current research degree supervisions

    PhD thesis: ‘A Contextual & Methodological Analysis of Applied Ethics: Moral, Epistemological & Ontological Concerns’

    PhD thesis: 'The Ancient Greek concepts of akrasia and mania and their bearing upon the problem of addiction'

    PhD thesis: ‘Shame, Stigma, HIV and sexual health’

    PhD thesis: ‘Ethnic Identity and Migration: Zimbabwean Migrant Women’s Identity Construction in the UK’

    PhD thesis: 'Are Philosophers' Methods Members' Methods? A Philosophical Interpretation of Garfinkel's Identity Thesis'

    Masters by Research: 'Putting Phenomenology into Practice - Towards an Epistemology of Person Centred Healthcare'. [Student funded by the European Society for Person-Centred Healthcare as part of a research project to fund work to inform the policy statements of the society on the foundational epistemology of Person-Centred Healthcare (related to my award for my research in this area)]

    Masters by Research: 'Starting with the person: a formulation-driven approach to the epistemology of mental health practice'. [Student funded by the European Society for Person-Centred Healthcare and Lancashire Care NHS Foundation Trustas part of a research project to fund work to inform the policy statements of the society on the foundational epistemology of Person-Centred Healthcare (related to my award for my research in this area)]

    Supervision of visiting students

    PhD student, based at European Univeristy Viadrina, Frankfurt, applied successfully to be my visiting student at MMU Cheshire for the periods January-June 2016 and September-December 2016. Topic: 'More than pills. Epistemological issue in Cardiovascular Primary prevention'. (The student has now returned to Frankfurt but we are still in correspondence and working on a research paper together.)

    Supervisions of research degrees completed since 2000

    PhD thesis (with the Open University) ‘The concept of function in osteopathy and conventional medicine: a comparative study’. Awarded 2001

    PhD thesis ‘The political philosophy of FA Hayek – a critique from the perspective of action theory’. Awarded 2002

    PhD thesis: ‘Wittgenstein, Cognitive Science and the Foundations of Meaning’. Awarded 2014

    MA thesis ‘Consent in the area of experimentation using human subjects’. Awarded 2000

    MA thesis ‘Panpsychism and environmental consciousness’. Awarded 2000

    MA thesis ‘Social factors in the causation of depression’. Awarded 2001

    MA thesis ‘The use of the “virtual baby” in sex education programmes’. Awarded 2002

    MA thesis ‘Online prescribing in homeopathy – evidence, regulation and good practice’ Awarded 2003

    MA thesis ‘The role of nurses in ethical decision making concerning terminally ill patients’ Awarded 2003

    MA thesis ‘Priorities in intensive care – a phenomenological study’ Awarded 2003

    MA thesis ‘Environmental health – international policy and local initiatives’ Awarded 2004

    MA thesis ‘Evidence – how is it defined, understood and valued in health promotion?’ Awarded 2005

    MA thesis ‘The treatment of patients with CJD’ Awarded 2006

    MA thesis ‘Evidence-based care in midwifery’ Awarded 2006

    MA thesis ‘The war on terror: rhetoric and the management of opinion’ Awarded 2008

    MA thesis ‘The Philosophy of Mental Illness – a critical analysis of current methods of diagnosis and treatment utilised by psychiatry and medical practice’ Awarded 2012

    MA thesis ‘Is Parfit successful in claiming that “Personal identity is not what matters”? Does his relation R overcome the problems of personal identity?’ Awarded 2013

    External examiner roles

    I am currently External Examiner for BSc Medical Science and Humanities, University of Wales, Swansea (since 2014) and before that (2009-2014) I was External Examiner for the BA Philosophy Single Honours and Combined Honours at the University of Central Lancashire.  Prior to that I was an External Examiner for the British School of Osteopathy's professional degrees.

    I have externally examined a range of PhD theses over the years, including a PhD by publication for the School of Education, Health and Sciences, University of Derby, and a PhD on decision-making in law and clinical practice for the National Centre for Health and Social Ethics, Auckland University of Technology.  I am currently examining the following PhDs, both due for examination in 2017:

    ‘Applied Philosophy as a Reflective Practice’, Faculty of Business & Society, University of South Wales

    ‘Causation in Evidence-based Medicine’, School of Health Sciences, University of Nottingham

  • Research Expertise, Publications & Grants

    Research expertise

    My research reflects my conception of philosophy as an applied discipline, which I characterised in a book written in 2002 as “training in intellectual and moral self-defence” and which is, in the “post-truth” era, needed more urgently than ever. We need the critical skills such training helps us to develop and preserve, if we are to think for ourselves and to make our own decisions, to live and practice well. To explain and defend this conception of the subject, I have written on a wide range of topics and addressed some very diverse academic and professional groups, promoting philosophy as an applied discipline and explaining its value in an irrational social world.

    After early work on the nature of perception, perceptual content, consciousness and action, I started to write quite extensively on the relationship between knowledge, science and value in clinical practice, applying arguments developed in my PhD (on the relationship between epistemology and ethics) and early publications to analyses of the nature and role of rationality, evidence, judgement and intuition in medicine and health care. My early work raised methodological questions about quality measures, bioethics and the use of evidence in health policy, criticised the role of management theory in undermining professional autonomy and defended a conception of professional judgement with reference to a ‘virtues’ approach to practical wisdom. I've written many articles in academic journals and popular media, and addressed international audiences of practitioners and policy-makers on evidence-based practice in a number of areas, including medicine, nursing, dentistry and social work. I have co-authored policy documents and advised professional groups on the philosophical education of practitioners. As Associate Editor of the Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice I have edited several special issues on philosophical aspects of health care.

    My work on medical epistemology raised questions about scientism and moral realism, defending a humanistic conception of rationality and science in practice. The arrival of the important movement for person-centred healthcare provided me with a way to 'join the dots' between my earlier and later work. In 2014 I received an award from the European Society for Person Centred Healthcare for my “foundational work” in the Philosophy of Person-Centred Care. I now chair the Society's Special Interest Group in Health Philosophy and this is presenting very exciting opportunities to develop international and interdisciplinary collaborations with potentially a global impact on practices in health, education and social care.

    Academic collaborations

    Current/on-going:

    Chair of Special Interest Group for Health Philosophy, European Society for Person-Centred Healthcare (2013-)

    Collaborator, Causation, Complexity and Evidence in Health Sciences (CAUSEHEALTH) Project, Research Council of Norway (2014-)

    Project Partner, Collaborating Centre for Values-based Practice in Health & Social Care, St Catherine's College, Oxford (2015-)

    Project Partner, 'Particularism in Bioethics, Professional Ethics and Medicine', MMU/ Welcome Trust (2015-)

    Collaborator, Inter-Professional Education Project, The Values Exchange (2015-)

    Member of project team for MMU (with Dr Geraldine Lee-Treweek) leading the final stages of the TEACH project, for the harmonisation of preschool teacher education curricula in Serbia, funded (350,000 euros) by the European Commission through the TEMPUS programme. (Collaborating partners: University of Maribor, Slovenia, University of Baja, Hungary and Western Balkans Institute (WEBIN), Serbia and four colleges in Serbia providing degrees for pre-school teacher training.) (2016)

    Leader (again with my colleague Dr Geraldine Lee-Treweek) of bid (300,000 euros) to the European Commission's Europe for Citizens Programme: 3 year project for 'Improving Political Literacy – Teaching, Argument & Rhetoric'. (Collaborating partners: University of Hanover, Germany, University of Warsaw, Poland and Western Balkans Institute (WEBIN), Serbia.) (2016-)

    Leader of an Erasmus Plus Higher Education Strategic Partnership bid, for circa 300,000 euros to develop critical learning materials for practitioners in health and social care on 'Dignity and Personhood – operationalising commitments and developing criteria for success'. (Collaborating partners: University of Turku, Finland, European Society for Person-Centred Healthcare (ESPCH), the Distance-learning University of Madrid, Spain and Plovdiv Medical Univerity, Bulgaria.) (2017)

    Member of the project team (with colleagues from IDS) for an Erasmus bid for 300,000 euros for the project 'What works?' to develop non-violent modes of youth conflict resolution, to train youth workers (our main target group) in integrating these cost-effective methods into enhanced practice to prevent future conflicts via early warning systems. The MMU team leads a Consortium which deploys a cross-Europe approach with 5 partners (UK, Italy, Hungary, Estonia and Serbia) (2017)

    I've been involved in many academic collaborations over the years with practical applications. In 2004 I secured £4,000 to pay a research assistant as part of the CANDOR project (Changing the Attitude of Teachers through Normal and Distance Learning for Open Human Relationships) for the Centre For Social Inclusion, MMU, Cheshire. We produced a report entitled: ‘Survey of Approaches to Ethics in Health Promotion Literature’ which the Centre produced for the Society of Health Education and Promotion Specialists.

    In 2010, with the assistance of a small grant supplied by Situating Science: Cluster for the Humanist and Social Studies of Science, I worked with colleagues in Canada to put together an international team of philosophers, clinicians and social scientists to establish the philosophy thematic editions of the Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, meeting with participants and arranging to publish the proceedings and addresses to the international workshop: ‘Critical debates in Evidence-based Medicine’ at the Joint Centre for Bioethics, University of Toronto. We are now working towards the publication of the seventh of these thematic editions and they attract large numbers of readers, academics and practitioners.

    In 2014 and 2015, working with my MMU colleague Dr Phil Hutchinson, I designed and delivered lectures for the Summer School in Critical Thinking, attended by students from the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economic and Public Administration (RANPEA), Moscow, on the Crewe campus of MMU, attracting approximately 20 Russian students per year for the last two academic years. (Earning the department approximately £20,000 per year.) Dr Hutchinson and I have worked together in organising numerous international conferences. (Details under 'Conference organisation'.)

    • Publications

      • Books (authored/edited/special issues)

        M. Loughlin (2014). Debates in Values-Based Practice. Cambridge University Press.

        M. Loughlin (2014). Debates in values-based practice: Arguments for and against.

        M. Loughlin (2002). Ethics, Management, and Mythology. Radcliffe Publishing.

      • Refereed journal articles

        M. Loughlin (2017). The assumptions of ethical rationing: An unreasonable man’s response to Magelssen et al. Clinical Ethics. pp.147775091668262-147775091668262.

        M. Loughlin, P. Wyer, S. Tanenbaum Teaching by (bad) example: what a confused attempt to “advance” EBM reveals about its underlying problems. JOURNAL OF EVALUATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE. 22(4),

        M. Loughlin, J. Fuller, R. Bluhm, S. Buetow, K. Borgerson (2016). Theory, experience and practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 22(4), pp.459-465.

        M. Loughlin, R. Bluhm, J. Fuller, S. Buetow, K. Borgerson, et al. BR. Lewis, BM. Kious. (2015). Diseases, patients and the epistemology of practice: mapping the borders of health, medicine and care. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 21(3), pp.357-364.

        M. Loughlin, R. Bluhm, J. Fuller, S. Buetow, REG. Upshur, et al. K. Borgerson, MJ. Goldenberg, E. Kingma. (2014). Philosophy, medicine and health care - where we have come from and where we are going. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 20(6), pp.902-907.

        M. Loughlin (2014). Editorial introduction. Debates in Values-Based Practice: Arguments for and Against. pp.ix-xxii.

        M. Loughlin (2014). What Person-Centred Medicine is and isn’t: temptations for the ‘soul’ of PCM. European Journal of Person-Centred Health Care. 2(1), pp.16-21.

        M. Loughlin, G. Lewith, T. Falkenberg (2013). Science, practice and mythology: a definition and examination of the implications of scientism in medicine. Health Care Anal. 21(2), pp.130-145.

        M. Loughlin, R. Bluhm, D. Stoyanov, S. Buetow, R. Upshur, et al. K. Borgerson, MJ. Goldenburg, E. Kingma. (2013). Explanation, Understanding, Objectivity and Experience. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 19(3), pp.415-421.

        M. Loughlin, R. Bluhm, S. Buetow, REG. Upshur, MJ. Goldenberg, et al. K. Borgerson, V. Entwistle, E. Kingma. (2012). Reason and value: making reasoning fit for practice. JOURNAL OF EVALUATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE. 18(5), pp.929-937.

        M. Loughlin (2012). Book review of Ryan, T(2011) ‘Animals and Social Work – A Moral Introduction’. Ethics and Social Welfare. 6(4), pp.422-424.

        M. Loughlin, R. Bluhm, S. Buetow, REG. Upshur, MJ. Goldenberg, et al. K. Borgerson, V. Entwistle. (2011). Virtue, progress and practice. JOURNAL OF EVALUATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE. 17(5), pp.839-846.

        M. Loughlin (2011). Criticizing the data: some concerns about empirical approaches to ethics. J Eval Clin Pract. 17(5), pp.970-975.

        A. Miles, M. Loughlin (2011). Models in the balance: Evidence-based medicine versus evidence-informed individualized care. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 17(4), pp.531-536.

        M. Loughlin (2011). Book review of CA Coady, ‘Messy Morality: the challenge of politics’. Ethics and Social Welfare. 5(4), pp.418-421.

        M. Loughlin (2010). Epistemology, biology and mysticism: comments on 'Polanyi's tacit knowledge and the relevance of epistemology to clinical medicine'. J Eval Clin Pract. 16(2), pp.298-300.

        M. Loughlin, REG. Upshur, MJ. Goldenberg, R. Bluhm, K. Borgerson (2010). Philosophy, ethics, medicine and health care: the urgent need for critical practice. JOURNAL OF EVALUATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE. 16(2), pp.249-259.

        M. Loughlin (2010). Psychologism, Overpsychologism, and Action. Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology. 17(4), pp.305-309.

        M. Loughlin (2009). The basis of medical knowledge: judgement, objectivity and the history of ideas. J Eval Clin Pract. 15(6), pp.935-940.

        M. Loughlin (2009). The search for substance: a quest for the identity-conditions of evidence-based medicine and some comments on Djulbegovic, B., Guyatt, G. H. & Ashcroft, R. E. (2009) Cancer Control, 16, 158-168. J Eval Clin Pract. 15(6), pp.910-914.

        A. Miles, M. Loughlin (2009). Philosophy, freedom and the public good: a review and analysis of 'Public Health Ethics'Holland, S. (2007). JOURNAL OF EVALUATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE. 15(5), pp.838-858.

        A. Miles, M. Loughlin, A. Polychronis (2008). Evidence-based healthcare, clinical knowledge and the rise of personalised medicine. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 14(5), pp.621-649.

        M. Loughlin (2008). Reason, reality and objectivity--shared dogmas and distortions in the way both 'scientistic' and 'postmodern' commentators frame the EBM debate. J Eval Clin Pract. 14(5), pp.665-671.

        M. Loughlin (2008). Framing the EBM debate: a commentary on Saad (2008). J Eval Clin Pract. 14(5), pp.653-655.

        M. Loughlin (2008). Inside intuition. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 14(5), pp.690-692.

        M. Loughlin (2007). Analysis: A Physician’s Self-Paced Guide to Critical Thinking. Jenicek, M. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 13(4), pp.540-544.

        M. Loughlin (2007). Style, substance, Newspeak 'and all that': a commentary on Murray et al. (2007) and an open challenge to Goldacre and other 'offended' apologists for EBM. J Eval Clin Pract. 13(4), pp.517-521.

        A. Miles, M. Loughlin, A. Polychronis (2007). Medicine and evidence: Knowledge and action in clinical practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 13(4), pp.481-503.

        A. Miles, M. Loughlin (2006). Continuing the evidence-based health care debate in 2006. The progress and price of EBM. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 12(4), pp.385-398.

        S. Buetow, R. Upshur, A. Miles, M. Loughlin (2006). Taking stock of evidence-based medicine: Opportunities for its continuing evolution. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 12(4), pp.399-404.

        R. Upshur, S. Buetow, M. Loughlin, A. Miles (2006). Can academic and clinical journals be in financial conflict of interest situations? The case of evidence-based incorporated. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 12(4), pp.405-409.

        M. Loughlin (2006). Blinded by 'science': Commentary on Jenicek, M. (2006) 'The hard art of soft science' Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12, 410-419. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 12(4), pp.423-426.

        M. Loughlin (2006). A platitude too far: 'evidence-based ethics'. Commentary on Borry (2006), Evidence-based medicine and its role in ethical decision-making. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12, 306-311. J Eval Clin Pract. 12(3), pp.312-318.

        M. Loughlin (2006). The future for medical epistemology? Commentary on Tonelli (2006), Integrating evidence into clinical practice: an alternative to evidence-based approaches. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12, 248-256. J Eval Clin Pract. 12(3), pp.289-291.

        M. Loughlin (2004). Camouflage is still no defence - Another plea for a straight answer to the question 'what is bioethics?'. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 10(1), pp.75-83.

        M. Loughlin (2004). Management, Science and Reality. Philosophy of Management. 4(2), pp.35-44.

        M. Loughlin (2004). Essay Review of Sarah Carr’s ‘Tackling NHS Jargon’. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 10(1), pp.121-124.

        M. Loughlin (2004). Quality, Control and Complicity. International Journal of the Humanities. 2, pp.717-724.

        M. Loughlin (2003). Ethics and evidence-based medicine: Fallibility and responsibility in clinical science [Kenneth Goodman, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, ISBN 0 521 79653 9, £19.95 (pbk), ISBN 0 521 81933 4, £55-00 (hbk)]. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 9(2), pp.141-144.

        M. Loughlin (2003). Critical thinking vs. moral expertise: a commentary on 'The rationale of value-laden medicine' (Kottow 2002; Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 8, 77-84). J Eval Clin Pract. 9(1), pp.92-94.

        M. Loughlin (2003). Contingency, arbitrariness and failure. Philosophy, Psychiatry and Psychology. 10(3), pp.261-264.

        M. Loughlin (2002). On the buzzword approach to policy formation. J Eval Clin Pract. 8(2), pp.229-242.

        M. Loughlin (2002). Arguments at cross-purposes: moral epistemology and medical ethics. J Med Ethics. 28(1), pp.28-32.

        M. Loughlin (2000). On the meaning of ‘applied philosophy’. Philosophical Inquiry. 22(3), pp.17-37.

        M. Loughlin, A. Pritchard (1998). Returning to the point: a reply to the 'Riposte' of Pilgrim and Rogers. Health Care Anal. 6(1), pp.72-81.

        M. Loughlin, A. Pritchard (1997). The defeat of reason. Health Care Anal. 5(4), pp.315-325.

        M. Loughlin (1997). Memory repression and recovery: A postmodern problem?. HEALTH CARE ANALYSIS. 5(2), pp.112-113.

        M. Loughlin (1996). Promoting confusion. Health Care Analysis. 4(4), pp.332-339.

        M. Loughlin (1996). Professional ethics and organisational change in education and health care - Henry,C. HEALTH CARE ANALYSIS. 4(4), pp.357-358.

        M. Loughlin (1996). Rationing, barbarity and the economist's perspective. Health Care Analysis. 4(2), pp.146-156.

        M. Loughlin (1996). The language of quality. J Eval Clin Pract. 2(2), pp.87-95.

        M. Loughlin (1996). Will there be a philosophy of health promotion?. Health Care Anal. 4(2), pp.126-129.

        M. Loughlin (1995). Brief encounter: a dialogue between a philosopher and an NHS manager on the subject of 'quality'. J Eval Clin Pract. 1(2), pp.81-85.

        M. Loughlin (1995). Bioethics and the mythology of liberalism. HEALTH CARE ANALYSIS. 3(4), pp.315-323.

        M. LOUGHLIN (1995). THE WALL PAPER REEXAMINED. HEALTH CARE ANALYSIS. 3(2), pp.127-134.

        M. LOUGHLIN (1995). DWORKIN, RAWLS AND REALITY. HEALTH CARE ANALYSIS. 3(1), pp.37-43.

        M. LOUGHLIN (1994). INTERPERSONAL COMPARISONS OF WELL-BEING - ESTLER,J, ROEMER,JE. HEALTH CARE ANALYSIS. 2(4), pp.356-357.

        M. LOUGHLIN (1994). THE SILENCE OF PHILOSOPHY. HEALTH CARE ANALYSIS. 2(4), pp.310-316.

        S. Gorovitz, M. Loughlin, T. Dare (1994). The commentaries. Health Care Analysis. 2(3), pp.190-199.

        M. Loughlin (1994). Paper two: Rationality, harm and risk. Health Care Analysis. 2(2), pp.123-127.

        M. Loughlin (1994). The Management of Illness – the need for Health and Social Philosophy. Health Care Analysis. 2(3), pp.227-232.

        M. Loughlin (1994). Poetry, Clarity and Authority. Health Care Analysis. 2(3), pp.196-297.

        M. Loughlin (1994). The Poverty of Management. Health Care Analysis. 2(2), pp.135-139.

        M. Loughlin (1994). Behind the Wall Paper. Health Care Analysis. 2(1), pp.47-53.

        M. Loughlin (1994). Against Qualia: Our direct perception of physical reality. European Review of Philosophy. 1, pp.77-88.

        M. Loughlin (1993). The strange quest for the health gain. Health Care Analysis. 1(2), pp.165-169.

        M. Loughlin (1993). A reply to Spicker. Health Care Analysis. 1(1), pp.39-42.

        M. Loughlin (1993). The illusion of quality. Health Care Analysis. 1(1), pp.69-73.

      • Chapters in books

        M. Loughlin, R. Bluhm, M. Gupta (2016). Research Problems and Methods in the Philosophy of Medicine. J. Marcum. In: Bloomsbury Companion to Contemporary Philosophy of Medicine. Bloomsbury Academic, pp.29-62.

        M. Loughlin (2015). Psychiatry, Objectivity and Realism about Value. P. Zachar, DS. Stoyanov, M. Aragona, A. Jablensky. In: Alternative Perspectives on Psychiatric Classification. Oxford: Oxford University Press,

        P. Hutchinson, R. Read (2014). Reframing Health Care: Philosophy for Medicine and Human Flourishing. M. Loughlin. In: Debates in Values-Based Practice: Arguments For and Against. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press, pp.69-84.

        P. Hutchinson, M. Loughlin (2009). Why Teach Philosophy?. A. Kenkmann. In: Teaching Philosophy. London: Continuum, pp.38-55.

        M. Loughlin (2006). Thinking: Where to start. In: Prioritising Child Health: Practice and Principles. pp.51-62.

        M. Loughlin (2004). Orwellian Quality – the bosses’ revolution. M. Learmonth, N. Harding. In: Unmasking Health Management. New York: Nova Science Pub Incorporated,

        M. Loughlin (2001). Clinical Governance: Philosophy, Rhetoric and Repression. A. Miles, AP. Hill, B. Hurwitz. In: Clinical Governance and the Nhs Reforms. London: Aesculapius Medical Press,

        M. Loughlin (2000). Quality and Excellence: Meaning versus Rhetoric. A. Miles, JR. Hampton, B. Hurwitz. In: NICE, CHI and the NHS Reforms: Enabling excellence or imposing control?. London: Aesculapius Medical Press,

        M. Loughlin (1998). Impossible Problems? - the limits to the very idea of reasoning about the organisation of health services. S. Dracopoulou. In: Ethics and Values in Health Care Management. Psychology Press, pp.68-102.

        M. Loughlin (1995). Health Reform and the Utopian Ideology of the New Right. DD. Seedhouse. In: Reforming Health Care: The Philosophy and Practice of International Health Reform. Wiley, pp.143-149.

      • Conferences

        M. Loughlin, M. Tassinari Impact and the Research Agenda. MMU Cheshire, 9/3/2016.

        M. Loughlin From the revolution to the renaissance: science, philosophy, rhetoric and the EBM debate. City Hospital Campus, University of Nottingham, 16/11/2015.

        M. Loughlin Invited panel member. Institute for Health and Social Science Research, MMU,

        M. Loughlin Academic parasites: the uses and abuses of applied philosophy. University of Glasgow, 11/11/2015.

        M. Loughlin, R. Kerry Speaker against the motion: "This house believes that, in the absence of research evidence, an intervention should not be used.". Echo Arena, Liverpool, 16/10/2015.

        M. Loughlin Causation, Complexity and Health - the scope of explanation. Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo, 12/10/2015.

        M. Loughlin, ER. Loughlin Exclusion, identity and categorisation – gender politics and transgender women. MMU Cheshire, 7/7/2015.

        M. Loughlin Philosophy of Science in Clinical Practice: science, rhetoric and the EBM debate. Aarhus, Denmark, 22/6/2015.

        M. Loughlin Person-Centred Care and the Ontology of Value. Francisco de Vitoria University, Madrid, 15/6/2015.

        M. Loughlin Clinical epidemiology and evidence-based medicine. GHC (Grupo Hospitalar Conceicao) in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 8/11/2014.

        M. Loughlin 'From the “revolution” to the “renaissance”: science, philosophy, rhetoric and the EBM debate. University of Vale do Rio dos Sinos, São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 3/11/2014.

        M. Loughlin Politics, Impact and the Research Agenda. Manchester Metropolitan University, 11/2014.

        M. Loughlin Understanding and responding to the person and her/his illness: phenomenology, epistemology and general philosophical considerations. Francisco de Vitoria University, Madrid, 1/7/2014.

        M. Loughlin Is there a need for Person-Centred Healthcare?. Francisco de Vitoria University, Madrid, 1/7/2014.

        M. Loughlin Evidence in osteopathy. British School of Osteopathy,London, UK, 20/6/2014.

        M. Loughlin Quality Measures and Dentistry. Royal College of Surgeons of England, Harrogate, 1/11/2013.

        M. Loughlin Dimensions of Health: Psychological, Cultural and Spiritual. Department of Theology, University of Sofia, Bulgaria, 24/5/2013.

        M. Loughlin What do we mean by “person-centred health care”?. Medical University of Plovdiv, Bulgaria, 23/5/2013.

        M. Loughlin Intuition and knowledge in osteopathic diagnosis. St Katherine's, London, 5/2013.

        M. Loughlin Politics, the Research Agenda and Person-Centred Medicine. International College of Person-Centred Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, 1/4/2013.

        M. Loughlin Values-based Practice: response to Venkatapuram. MMU Cheshire, 1/11/2012.

        M. Loughlin, P. Batchelor Quality of Life Measures: some criticisms. MMU Cheshire, 1/11/2012.

        M. Loughlin Evidence in Medical Ethics. MMU Cheshire, 1/11/2012.

        M. Loughlin Argument, Rhetoric and Impact: the influence of politics on Academic Discourse. University of Wales, Newport, 1/4/2012.

        M. Loughlin Evidence-based practice and public policy. MMU Cheshire, 1/4/2012.

        M. Loughlin Varieties of “ethics” in contemporary policy debate. Royal College of Surgeons of England, Gatwick, 1/1/2012.

        M. Loughlin Evidence, science and scientism. Primary Medical Care Department, Aldermoor Health Centre, Southampton, 3/2011.

        M. Loughlin Osteopathy, neurobiology, evidence and value. St Albans,

        M. Loughlin Virtue, ethics and value. Royal College of Surgeons of England, Harrogate, 1/1/2011.

        M. Loughlin Ethical reasoning in an irrational world. European Association of Schools of Social Work, 1/11/2010.

        M. Loughlin Bad Arguments: persuasive definition, caricature and platitude in the Evidence-based medicine debate. MMU Cheshire, 1/4/2010.

        M. Loughlin Ethics and oral health policy. Royal College of Surgeons of England, Gatwick, 1/1/2010.

        M. Loughlin Tacit knowledge and intuition. Faculty of Integrated Medicine, Integrated Health Trust, Bath, 1/10/2009.

        M. Loughlin Philosophy and public health. University of Buckingham, 1/9/2009.

        M. Loughlin On the buzzword approach to policy formation. Glasgow, 1/3/2009.

        M. Loughlin The ethics of “ethics”. Royal College of Surgeons of England, Harrogate, 1/2/2009.

        M. Loughlin Critical debates in Evidence-based Medicine: where we’ve been and where we’re going. Joint Centre for Bioethics, University of Toronto, 1/11/2008.

        M. Loughlin (2009). The basis of medical knowledge: judgement, objectivity and the history of ideas. In: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. Instituto Superiore di Sanita,University of Rome, 10/2008.

        M. Loughlin The bogus science of value. Royal College of Surgeons of England, Gatwick, 1/2/2008.

        M. Loughlin Value measures in dentistry. Royal College of Surgeons of England, Harrogate, 1/2/2007.

        M. Loughlin Abuses of philosophy: ethics, integrity and parasitism. Department of Philosophy, University of Wales, Lampeter, 1/11/2006.

        M. Loughlin QoL measures and the plot to kill NHS dentistry. Royal College of Surgeons of England, Gatwick, 1/2/2006.

        M. Loughlin Academic parasitism. IDS, MMU Cheshire, 1/1/2006.

        M. Loughlin The ethics of “measuring value” in health care. Royal College of Surgeons of England, Harrogate, 1/1/2005.

        M. Loughlin Main speaker against the motion: "This house believes that Quality of Life measures are the way forward for local commissioning of dental services.". Royal College of Physicians, London, 12/2004.

        M. Loughlin Quality, Control and Complicity. Monash University Centre in Prato, Italy, 1/7/2004.

        M. Loughlin Management, Science and Reality. St Anne’s College, Oxford, 1/7/2004.

        M. Loughlin The buzzword approach to policy formation. Queen Mary’s College, University of London, 1/2/2004.

        M. Loughlin The bosses’ revolution?. University of York, 1/7/2003.

        M. Loughlin The Quality Movement. Business School, MMU, 1/3/2003.

        M. Loughlin Modularity and the Fragmentation of Knowledge. University College London, 1/1/2003.

        M. Loughlin Quality Management – a critical perspective. University of York, 1/6/2002.

        M. Loughlin Quality, Management and the future of Higher Education. Department of Humanities and Applied Social Studies, MMU Cheshire, 1/2/2002.

        M. Loughlin The Rhetoric of Quality. Department of Construction Management at Reading University, 1/10/2001.

        M. Loughlin The Quality Movement: linguistic mistake, ideological intrusion, or what?. London School of Economics, 1/6/2001.

        M. Loughlin Philosophical problems for evidence-based medicine. Frognal Centre for Medical Studies, Queen Mary’s Hospital, Sidcup, 1/11/2000.

        M. Loughlin NICE, CHI and Clinical Governance. Calderdale Healthcare Trust, Halifax, 1/6/2000.

        M. Loughlin The case against evidence based medicine. Frognal Centre for Medical Studies, Queen Mary’s Hospital, Sidcup, 1/4/2000.

        M. Loughlin ‘Clinical Governance: philosophy, rhetoric and repression’. Royal College of Physicians, 1/3/2000.

        M. Loughlin ‘“Quality” and “Excellence”: meaning versus rhetoric’. Royal College of Physicians, 1/9/1999.

        M. Loughlin On the impossibility of ethical rationing. School of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Middlesex University, 1/10/1998.

        M. Loughlin UK health policy and evidence based medicine. St Albans, 1/3/1996.

    • Invited keynotes and conference contribution

      • Invited papers

        Conference Addresses / Academic Meetings

        ‘Ethics and oral health policy’, the Postgraduate Seminar, Faculty of General Dental Practice, Royal College of Surgeons of England, Gatwick, January 2010

        ‘Tacit knowledge and intuition’, Faculty of Integrated Medicine, Integrated Health Trust, Bath, October 2009

        ‘Philosophy and public health’, Postgraduate Seminar, Medical School, University of Buckingham, September 2009

        ‘On the buzzword approach to policy formation’, address to NHS Quality Improvement Scotland, Glasgow, March 2009

        ‘Ethics and Quality-of-Life Measures,’ the Postgraduate Seminar, Faculty of General Dental Practice, Royal College of Surgeons of England, Harrogate, February 2009

        Invited participant and representative of Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, international workshop: ‘Critical debates in Evidence-based Medicine: where we’ve been and where we’re going’; Joint Centre for Bioethics, University of Toronto, November 2008

        ‘The basis of medical knowledge: judgement, objectivity and the history of ideas’; First Morgagni Lecture, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, University of Rome, October 2008

        ‘Value measures in dentistry’, Faculty of General Dental Practice, Royal College of Surgeons of England, Harrogate, February 2007

        ‘Abuses of philosophy: ethics, integrity and parasitism’, address to the Department of Philosophy, University of Wales, Lampeter, November 2006

        ‘Academic parasitism’, address to departmental seminar, IDS, MMU Cheshire, January 2006

        ‘Quality, Control and Complicity’, address to the Second International Conference on ‘New Directions in the Humanities’, Monash University Centre in Prato, Italy, July 2004

        ‘Management, Science and Reality’ address to the conference ‘Practising Philosophy of Management’, Second International Conference of the Philosophy of Management, St Anne’s College, Oxford, July 2004

        ‘The buzzword approach to policy formation’, Department of Primary Care, Queen Mary’s College, University of London, February 2004

        ‘The bosses’ revolution?’ Centre for Health Management, University of York, July 2003

        Autumn Scientific Meeting of the British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry at the Royal College of Physicians, London, main speaker against the motion ‘This house believes that Quality of Life measures are the way forward for local commissioning of dental services’, December 2004

        ‘The Quality Movement’, Doctoral Symposium, Business School, MMU March 2003

        ‘Modularity and the Fragmentation of Knowledge’, introductory remarks to a workshop on modularity and commodification at the conference ‘The Degradation of Higher Education’, University College London, January 2003

        ‘Quality Management – a critical perspective’, the Postgraduate Seminar in the Centre for Health Management, University of York, June 2002

        ‘Quality, Management and the future of Higher Education’, address to the Departmental Research Seminar, Department of Humanities and Applied Social Studies, Crewe+Alsager Faculty, MMU, February 2002

        ‘The Rhetoric of Quality’, Research Seminar in the Department of Construction Management at Reading University, October 2001

        ‘The Quality Movement: linguistic mistake, ideological intrusion, or what?’ address to the conference ‘Introduction to the Philosophy of Management’ to launch the journal Reason in Practice at the London School of Economics, June 2001

        ‘Philosophical problems for evidence-based medicine’, Frognal Centre for Medical Studies, Queen Mary’s Hospital, Sidcup, November 2000

        ‘NICE, CHI and Clinical Governance’, address to the Joint Academic Psychiatric Seminar, the Calderdale Healthcare Trust, Halifax, June 2000

        ‘The case against evidence based medicine’, a reply to Dr Paul Davies, Vice-Chair, Royal College of General Practitioners, in the debate ‘Evidence-based medicine – for and against’ at the Frognal Centre for Medical Studies, Queen Mary’s Hospital, Sidcup, April 2000

        ‘Clinical Governance: philosophy, rhetoric and repression’, Opening address of the conference ‘Clinical Governance and the NHS reforms’ organised by the Royal College of Physicians, the British Medical Association and the King’s Fund, March 2000

        ‘“Quality” and “Excellence”: meaning versus rhetoric’, Opening address of the conference ‘NICE, CHI and the NHS reforms: enabling excellence or imposing control?’ organised by the Royal College of Physicians, the British Medical Association and the King’s Fund, September 1999

        ‘On the impossibility of ethical rationing’, Health Care Ethics Seminar, School of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Middlesex University, October 1998

        UK health policy and evidence based medicine’, Meeting of the British School of Osteopathy, St Albans, March 1996

    Conference organisation

    I have collaborated with colleagues to host a number of conferences in Applied Philosophy over the years, attracting acknowledged leaders in the fields of medical epistemology, health philosophy, ethics and argument theory.

    May 2009: The Philosophy of Social Science, MMU Cheshire.
    60 delegates, keynote speakers David Cockburn, Wes Sharrock, Gavin Kitching and Nigel Pleasants. (I supervised a group of masters students, jointly with my departmental colleague in philosophy, Dr Hutchinson, in organising this event.)

    April 2010: two linked conferences at MMU Cheshire (again organised with Dr Hutchinson and one of my research students):

    Where’s Your Argument? (on Critical Thinking, Argument Theory, Informal Logic & Applied Philosophy) 90 delegates, Keynote speakers: Jamie Whyte, Steven Poole, Lars Hertzberg, Franz Van Emerson and Don Levi. Key papers (including my own) published in the Philosopher’s Magazine, one of the sponsors of the event, which was also covered in local media. My own address is accessible on Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KhI7P0gCneY )

    Being Frank: Philosophy After Ebersole (on Philosophical Logic, co-branded with the Mind & Society Conference organised at Manchester University) 35 delegates, Keynote speakers: Don Levi, Kelly Dean Jolly, Wes Sharrock

    November 2012: Evidence-based Practice, MMU Cheshire, Keynote speakers: Sandra Tanenbaum, KWM Fulford. Papers subsequently published in the CUP Volume: ‘Debates in Values-based Practice: arguments for and against’ and in special thematic edition of the Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice (in each case edited by myself).

    July 2014: ‘Medical Prediction from Populations to Patients’: address to the Research Institute for Health and Social Change, Manchester Metropolitan University by Jonathan Fuller of the University of Toronto and King’s College London.

    June 2015: Co-organiser (with Sophie van Baalen, University of Twente, Prof Jane Macnaughton, University of Durham & Rani Anjum, Norwegian University of Life Sciences) of symposium 'Philosophy of Science in Clinical Practice', for the annual conference of the Society for the Philosophy of Science in Practice, Arrhus, Denmark

    Expert reviewer for journals and publishers

    In addition to acting as a reviewer for many academic journals in philosophy, management and health care, (see the section on this page on editorial board membership and journal involvement) I have been commissioned as an Academic referee for Palgrave SAGE publications and McGill-Queens University Press.

  • Engagement & Knowledge Exchange
  • Awards, Honours & Distinctions

    Prizes and awards

    Presented with Senior Vice President’s Medal for Excellence, for ‘Progressing the Foundational and Applied Philosophy of Person Centred Healthcare’. First Annual Conference, European Society for Person Centred Healthcare, Francisco de Vitoria University, Madrid, July 2014

    Other distinctions

    I was the first philosopher to become an invited member of the Scientific Committee for the Morgagni Lectures, at the Istituto Superiore di Sanita, University of Rome in 2008.

    I supervised a PhD student for the Open University on ‘The concept of function in osteopathy and conventional medicine: a comparative study’ which was competed in 2001 and externally examined the following PhD theses:

    ‘The Philosophy and Practice of Holistic Health Care’, National Centre for Health and Social Ethics, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand (2004)

    ‘The moral bases for professional and organisational obligation in health care, in the context of the values and politics of the NHS’, School of Education, Health and Sciences, University of Derby, UK (2005)

    A philosophical critique of the best interest test as a criterion for decision-making in law and clinical practice’, National Centre for Health and Social Ethics, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand (2006)

    Visiting and honorary positions

    Visiting Reader in Philosophy as applied to health care in the School of Medicine and Dentistry at Queen Mary College, University of London, between 2004 and 2009.

    Visiting Professor of Applied Philosophy, School of Medicine, University of Buckingham 2010-2013

    Editiorial Board membership

    Associate Editor, Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice (since 2013) (Editorial board member since 2002, founder and editor of its annual thematic editions in 'Philosophy of Medicine and Health Care' since 2010)

    Editorial Board Member, International Journal of Person-Centred Medicine (since 2010)

    Honorary Member of Editorial Board, Journal of Medicolegal and Bioethics (since 2010)

    Editorial board member, Journal of Clinical Research and Bioethics (since 2011)

    Editorial Board Member, European Journal of Person-Centred Healthcare (since 2013)

    Editorial board member for Philosophy of Management (since 2001)

    I have refereed for many journals, including Philosophy, Psychiatry and Psychology, Critical Discourse Studies, International Journal of Health Policy and Management, BMC Medical Ethics, BioMed Research International  and Medical Humanities. I was a member of the founding team for the journal Health Care Analysis, then a ground-breaking development as an interdiscinplinary journal addressing practice-based issues of philosophical significance (epistemic, ethical, organisational and socio-legal) and I worked under David Seedhouse on the editorial board between 1994 and 2005.